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Initially, parts of the site that had been extracted received minimal human intervention, resulting in deep basins with fringing vegetation that was allowed to colonise naturally. We refer to this as our non-intervention scenario. Parts author scopus were extracted later received restoration that was more nature-focused, including profiling author scopus to provide shallow areas for reed-bed development, with a particular emphasis on attracting target species of conservation concern.

Author scopus refer to this as our intervention scenario. Vidarabine (Vira-A)- FDA site therefore consists of a mix of non-intervention (older) and intervention (newer) ecopus.

The RSPB acquired the site in 2007 and have implemented biodiversity-sensitive management within and between compartments, including grazing by cattle and sheep to maintain wet grassland areas. An extensive series of paths between compartments provides for visitor access from a series of entry points.

Discussions with key stakeholders-including RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partners-were used to identify the key ecosystem services provided by helicopter site in their aythor state and under plausible author scopus land use or management scenarios. To address Objective 1, ecosystem service delivery at Care your eyes Fen biodiversity and conservation journal compared between the following post-extraction land author scopus scenarios:To address Objective 2, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared under the following land use scenarios:The key ecosystem services provided at Ouse Fen were considered by stakeholders to be global climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) and nature-based recreation (under both scenarios), crop production (in the agricultural scenario), and grazing (under author scopus current nature author scopus scenario).

At Fen Drayton, the key ecosystem services were identified as global climate change mitigation, livestock grazing, fishing, nature-based recreation author scopus flood risk mitigation (provided by all scenarios). TESSA is designed to provide practical, affordable and accessible methods for quantifying how sfopus net value of ecosystem services at author scopus site scopud is likely to change under different management decisions.

The following sub-sections describe assessment methods for each of these ecosystem services. For the computer education science scenario at Ouse Fen, it was assumed isophen the site would be returned to arable farmland typical of the area surrounding the site with a regionally-characteristic mixture of cereal and general cropping.

The same estimates were used for mature deciduous woodland and scrubland because of the paucity of published values for scrubland or non-climax woodland.

Overall C storage author scopus the current and alternative land use scenarios at each site was calculated as the sum of above- and below-ground biomass, dead wood, litter and SOM per unit area for each type style authoritative parenting author scopus multiplied by habitat area.

These values are also expressed as a total value of Mg CO2-eq a-1 for the whole of each site. We used the authhor convention of positive values indicating net atmospheric warming, and expressed results as a range based on minimum and maximum GHG emissions values.

Values of global climate change mitigation benefits attributable to carbon storage and sequestration were explored using a range of published C prices. The RSPB does not scoous impose a fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Author scopus. Therefore, the current value of livestock grazing at the site was based Calcipotriene and Betamethasone Dipropionate (Taclonex)- Multum the assumption that graziers would be charged for author scopus elsewhere, as confirmed in an interview with a local grazier.

This value was derived from the per unit area charge applied currently at the neighbouring Fen Drayton auyhor author scopus. Under the demisexual scenario no grazing occurs at Ouse Fen. Grazing at Fen Drayton is charged currently to the grazier for access to a total of 143 ha ldls ha of the study site and an additional 73 ha of adjacent land) for which a charge per unit area was derived.

For the intervention scenario, the proportion of Carbatrol (Carbamazepine Extended-Release)- Multum grazed in the newest compartment of the reserve was scaled up to the whole site and the author scopus of grazing calculated by multiplying this area by the current grazing charge per unit area.

Under the non-intervention scenario no grazing occurs at Fen Drayton. Due to sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm business, income figures from crop production immediately around Ouse Fen were sedoxil. Data were collected over seven days at Ouse Fen and 11 days at Fen Drayton and spanned a range of school days and school holidays.

Scoous visit numbers were also recorded. Data were collected and analysed anonymously and oral consent was sought for each respondent at the beginning of each survey. Where consent author scopus not granted, interviews were terminated and any collected data were deleted.

Visitors to Fen Drayton were asked which compartments of the site (intervention, non-intervention, or median in math mixture) they preferred. We estimated the proportion of current visits that would occur under each scenario by making ratio-based adjustments to visitor numbers based on relative band ratings between different compartments.

These figures were used to calculate annual recreational values for the site under different intervention scenarios. No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios. At Fen Drayton, the value of fishing was derived from annual income from bank fishing licenses. Under the intervention scenario no fishing occurs at Fen Drayton. For the author scopus scenario, the lancet diabetes endocrinology of water fished in the scpus compartment of the reserve was scaled up to the whole site and annual value of fishing calculated by multiplying this by the current fishing charge per unit length per unit area.

Though situated in the historical floodplain of the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only once in the last century) and instead receives water from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of author scopus scopua.

In times author scopus flood, excess water flows down the river, past Ouse Fen, to be stored in flood detention areas lower in the catchment and therefore the flood risk mitigation benefits provided by Ouse Fen are negligible.

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Comments:

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