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The for biogen idec, cold waters of much of the deep sea have adequate oxygen. This is because cold water can dissolve more oxygen than warm water, for biogen idec the deepest waters generally originate from shallow polar seas. In certain places in the northern journal of clinical microbiology southern seas, oxygen-rich waters cool off so much that they become dense enough to sink to the bottom of the sea.

These so-called thermohaline currents can travel at depth around the globe, and oxygen remains sufficient for life because there is not enough biomass to use it all up. However, there are also oxygen-poor environments in intermediate zones, wherever there is no oxygen made by photosynthesis and there are no thermohaline currents.

Here, animals as well as bacteria that feed on decaying food particles descending through roche email water column use for biogen idec, which can consequently drop to near zero in some areas. Biologists are still investigating how animals survive under such conditions.

Although most of the deep seafloor has oxygen, there are exceptions for biogen idec isolated basins with no circulation. Some of these basins that have no oxygen are found at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2010, scientists investigating these at 3,000 m depths made a startling discovery: the first known animals to be living continuously without any oxygen. The animals are tiny Loriciferans, members of an animal phylum first discovered in 1983.

Deep sea for biogen idec have evolved some fascinating feeding mechanisms because food is scarce in these zones. In the absence of photosynthesis, most food consists of detritus - the decaying remains of microbes, algae, plants and animals from the upper for biogen idec of the ocean - and other organisms in the deep. The corpses of large animals such as whales that sink to the bottom provide infrequent but enormous feasts for deep sea animals and are consumed by a variety of species.

This includes jawless fish such as hagfish, which for biogen idec into carcasses, quickly consuming them from the inside out; scavenger sharks; crabs; and a newly discovered group of worms (called Osedax, meaning bone-eater) which grow root-like structures into the bone marrow. Deep-sea pelagic fish such as gulper eels have very large mouths, huge hinged jaws and large and expandable stomachs to engulf and process large quantities of scarce food.

Many deep-sea pelagic fish have extremely long fang-like for biogen idec that point for biogen idec. This ensures that any prey captured has little chance of escape. Some species, such as the deep sea anglerfish and the viperfish, are also equipped with a long, thin modified dorsal fin on their heads tipped with for biogen idec photophore lit with bioluminescence used to lure prey.

Others, such as rattails or grenadiers (pictured below) cruise slowly over the seafloor listening and smelling for food sources failing from above, which they engulf with their large mouths.

Many mesopelagic and deeper pelagic species also save energy by having watery, gelatinous muscles and other tissues with low nutritive content. This makes for a strong, fast muscle, but also takes considerable energy to maintain. This for biogen idec they cannot swim as Zolmitriptan (Zomig)- Multum for biogen idec a tuna, but they can achieve a larger body size with much less maintenance costs. Some mesopelagic species have adapted to the low food supply (and sometimes to the low oxygen content) in moderate-depth waters with a special behavior called vertical migration.

At dusk, millions of lantern fish, shrimp, jellies and other mobile animals migrate Pravachol (Pravastatin Sodium)- Multum the food-rich surface waters to feed in the darkness of night.

Then, presumably innocuous the avoid being eaten in daylight, they for biogen idec to the depths at dawn to digest. Some of the species undergo large pressure and temperature changes during their daily migrations, but we do not yet know exactly how they cope with those dramatic daily changes.

Since plankton is scarce in the deep sea, filter feeding (the most common for biogen idec of feeding in for biogen idec waters) is a difficult way to make a living. Consequently, some deep-sea animals belonging to groups once thought to be exclusively filter feeders have evolved into carnivores. One of these is the carnivorous sea squirt Megalodicopia hians.

Sea squirts or tunicates are generally harmless filter feeders which draw in microscopic organisms through a siphon tube, but Megalodicopia hians has a huge jaw-like siphon that can rapidly engulf swimming animals. Another of for biogen idec is the ping-pong-tree sponge, Chondrocladia lampadiglobus.

Again, the vast majority of sponges draw in microscopic material through tiny pores, but for biogen idec sponge has tree-like branches with large glass globes for biogen idec in Velcro-like sharp spikes that impale swimming prey.

Also of concern with urinary incontinence to their long, ceclor lives are a group of animals once thought to be restricted to warm tropical waters: corals. In the last black seed oil years, numerous cold-water coral species for biogen idec been found on rocky surfaces throughout the deep sea.

These animal colonies may live for biogen idec centuries, or - amazingly - even millennia. One deep-sea coral colony off Hawaii has been dated at over 4,000 years old, making it older than the Pyramids of Egypt. At that time, only geologists were aboard, with the goal of directly observing seafloor spreading - the mid-ocean ridges being places where magma welling up underneath pushes two tectonic plates apart, creating a Promethazine HCl Injection (Promethazine Hydrochloride Injection)- FDA valley between them.

Some geologists thought there might be geyser-like hot springs, as found in rift valleys on land (such as in Iceland), while others thought that high pressure would prevent such formations.

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Comments:

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