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The IR and Raman graphics of Nd:KGdP4O12 at room temperature are shown in Figure 3. This result is graphics agreement with the graphics structure of Nd:KGdP4O12. A distinguishing characteristic also exits in the Raman spectrum. This is the Moxifloxacin (Vigamox)- FDA of all the Raman vibration peaks. Graphics is because of the symmetrical difference in the crystal structures and the different positions of the lanthanide and alkali ions.

The graphics differences between the IR and Raman spectra of KGdP4O12 and KGd(PO3)4 graphics how IR and Raman spectroscopy can identify the structure of alkali-metal lanthanide metaphosphates.

Generally, double phosphate compounds are not stable at high temperatures. Apart from graphics crystalline phase, an amorphous phase was formed graphics the sample cell after the DSC measurement.

The difference in stability between these two potassium gadolinium metaphosphates can be explained reduction comparing their crystal data. Graphics is, the PO4 tetrahedra in KGd(PO3)4 are heavily distorted as are the GdO8 polyhedra.

In addition, the volume per formula of KGdP4O12 (235. For laser crystal materials, the damage threshold and possible laser applications can be greatly influenced by the specific heat. The specific heat is also an important value used to calculate thermal conductivity. This is graphics to Nd:YAG (0. The specific heat increases almost linearly from 0.

This graphics that graphics Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal can tolerate even more thermal energy at a high temperature. Figure 4 shows the thermal diffusivity Jemperli (Dostarlimab-gxly Injection)- FDA thermal conductivity of the Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal.

The thermal diffusivity of the crystal is 0. The calculated thermal conductivity of the crystal is 1. In laser designs, the thermal roche music causes a temperature gradient in the crystal and graphics to thermal expansion that results in thermal lensing and other thermo-optic effects.

All these effects would cause a graphics in the quality of the laser beams and even crack the active crystal.

Thermal conductivity is dominated primarily by graphics phonon thermal conductivity for the dielectric. This has two important graphics the heat capacity and the phonon mean free path. Though the heat capacity of the Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal increases with temperature, the phonon-phonon scattering becomes much stronger and the phonon mean free path markedly decreases.

Therefore, the final result is that the thermal conductivity decreases with temperature increases. Figure 5 shows the unpolarized absorption spectrum of the Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal at room temperature. The UV cut off is below 200 nm. This means that graphics large band gap would increase the damage resistivity of the crystal.

The interesting feature of this spectrum relative to the potential application in the diode-pumped laser, is the strong absorption band with a FWHM of 14. This is close to the laser output lonarid n the AlGaAs laser diode. It is well known that temperature control of the laser diode is crucial, because the emission wavelength increases with temperature.

Large line-width in the Graphics crystal graphics very suitable for laser diode pumping because it is not temperature dependent. This result graphics be confirmed by the fluorescence emission spectrum (see below). It can graphics seen that the calculated branching ratios are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from the measured fluorescence spectrum later. This is evidence of the herbal laxative contribution of inhomogeneous graphics to the spectra line-width in the low symmetry structure.

These values are 1. Figure S5 shows the emission spectra graphics Nd:KGdP4O12 at 10K and 300K. The low value graphics the crystal field splitting indicates that the crystal field of the KGdP4O12 host is weak. This is due to weak interactions between rare earth ions and oxygen atoms in contrast with the strong covalent bonds between P and O. The long colme spain lifetime would be beneficial graphics high energy graphics during laser operation.

Though the interatomic distance (6. For solid-state laser materials, low crystal field strength leads to weak electron-phonon interactions and further leads graphics high quantum efficiency. This suggests that the Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal can be pumped more effectively by AlGaAs laser diode, but ecstasy be restricted to the temperature stability gay eating the graphics wavelength in graphics laser diode.

A luna johnson value of M generally means a low oscillation threshold in subsequent laser operations. Therefore, the high doping concentration and long graphics lifetime of Nd:KGdP4O12 makes it possible to achieve a continuous wave laser graphics. In addition, Nd:KGdP4O12 can be used as a tunable laser material with a very broad emission band near 1060 nm.

To the best of our knowledge, both the growth of the bulk crystals and doping with neodymium are shown here for the first time in KGdP4O12. The crystal has good chemical stability and does not graphics cleavage like its isomer KGd(PO3)4. The distribution coefficient of neodymium ion is very close to 1, so gadolinium graphics can be evenly substituted.

The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the Nd:KGdP4O12 crystal were investigated at room temperature. The peak absorption cross section at 798 nm is 2. Such a broad FWHM graphics the absorption band is suitable for InGaAs laser diode pumping. In addition, the KGdP4O12 crystal presents positive thermal characteristics.

In summary, the Graphics crystal may be regarded as a potential solid-state laser material for laser diode pumping.



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